A power module or power electronic module provides the physical containment for several power components, usually power semiconductor devices. These power semiconductors (so-called dies) are typically soldered or sintered on a power electronic substrate that carries the power semiconductors, provides electrical and thermal contact and electrical insulation where needed. Compared to discrete power semiconductors in plastic housings as TO-247 or TO-220, power packages provide a higher power density and are in many cases more reliable. Besides modules that contain a single power electronic switch (as MOSFET, IGBT, BJT, Thyristor, GTO or JFET) or diode, classical power modules contain multiple semiconductor dies that are connected to form an electrical circuit of a certain structure, called topology. Examples of broadly available topologies implemented in modules are: switch (MOSFET, IGBT), with antiparallel Diode; bridge rectifier containing 4 (1-phase) or 6 (3-phase) diodes half bridge (inverter leg, with two switches and their corresponding antiparallel diodes) three-phases inverter (six switches and the corresponding antiparallel diodes)
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